Assessment of Groundwater Quality Using GIS: A Case Study of Ahafo Kenyasi

Ernest Ankomah, Isaac Dadzie


The exploitation and sustainable use of groundwater has received much attention with the sudden decline in quantity and quality of surface water. Knowledge on the current status of the physico-chemical parameters of groundwater becomes important in ensuring the sustainable use of the resource. This study used Geographic Information System (GIS) to assess groundwater quality in Ahafo-Kenyasi with particular focus on determining the spatial distribution of groundwater quality parameters and also produce groundwater quality map of the area. Physico-chemical analyses of groundwater quality parameters were made after collection of water samples from 24 community boreholes. The results of analysis carried out showed the following concentration ranges: pH (5.12-6.54), EC (71.6-952µS/cm), TDS (35.08-465.59mg/l), Turbidity (0-6.25NTU), Ammonia (0.01-0.61mg/l), Nitrate (0.1-4.12mg/l), Sulphate (1-65.5mg/l).  All the samples analysed were above the guidelines set by World Health Organization (WHO, 2011) except for pH and Turbidity. Spatial distribution maps of the individual water quality parameters were developed using kriging interpolation technique and accepted based on the prediction performances of Stable, Exponential, K-Bessel semivariogram models. Overall water quality of the study area was assessed using Water Quality Index (WQI). The results showed that groundwater quality in the area decreases from north-western to south-eastern. However, groundwater from Ahafo-Kenyasi is good for domestic purposes.

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